Microsoft Windows history

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Microsoft Windows history

 

Year Event
See the codename definition for a listing of Microsoft codenames.
1983 Bill Gates announces Microsoft Windows November 10, 1983.
1985 Microsoft Windows 1.0 is introduced in November 20, 1985 and is initially sold for $100.00.
1987 Microsoft Windows 2.0 was released December 9, 1987 and is initially sold for $100.00.
1987 Microsoft Windows/386 or Windows 386 is introduced December 9, 1987 and is initially sold for $100.00.
1988 Microsoft Windows/286 or Windows 286 is introduced June, 1988 and is initially sold for $100.00.
1990 Microsoft Windows 3.0 was released May, 22 1990. Microsoft Windows 3.0 full version was priced at $149.95 and the upgrade version was priced at $79.95.
1991 Following its decision not to develop operating systems cooperatively with IBM, Microsoftchanges the name of OS/2 to Windows NT.
1991 Microsoft Windows 3.0 or Windows 3.0a with multimedia was released October, 1991.
1992 Microsoft Windows 3.1 was released April, 1992 and sells more than 1 Million copies within the first two months of its release.
1992 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups 3.1 was released October, 1992.
1993 Microsoft Windows NT 3.1 was released July 27, 1993.
1993 Microsoft Windows 3.11, an update to Windows 3.1 is released December 31, 1993.
1993 The number of licensed users of Microsoft Windows now totals more than 25 Million.
1994 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups 3.11 was released February, 1994.
1994 Microsoft Windows NT 3.5 was released September 21, 1994.
1995 Microsoft Windows NT 3.51 was released May 30, 1995.
1995 Microsoft Windows 95 was released August 24, 1995 and sells more than 1 Million copies within 4 days.
1995 Microsoft Windows 95 Service Pack 1 (4.00.950A) is released February 14, 1996.
1996 Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 was released July 29, 1996.
1996 Microsoft Windows 95 (4.00.950B) aka OSR2 with FAT32 and MMX support is released August 24, 1996.
1996 Microsoft Windows CE 1.0 was released November, 1996.
1997 Microsoft Windows CE 2.0 was released November, 1997.
1997 Microsoft Windows 95 (4.00.950C) aka OSR2.5 is released November 26, 1997.
1998 Microsoft Windows 98 was released June, 1998.
1998 Microsoft Windows CE 2.1 was released July, 1998.
1998 In October of 1998 Microsoft announced that future releases of Windows NT would no longer have the initials of NT and that the next edition would be Windows 2000.
1999 Microsoft Windows 98 SE (Second Edition) was released May 5, 1999.
1999 Microsoft Windows CE 3.0 was released 1999.
2000 On January 4th at CES Bill Gates announces the new version of Windows CE will be called Pocket PC.
2000 Microsoft Windows 2000 was released February 17, 2000.
2000 Microsoft Windows ME (Millennium) released June 19, 2000.
2001 Microsoft Windows XP is released October 25, 2001.
2001 Microsoft Windows XP 64-Bit Edition (Version 2002) for Itanium systems is released March 28, 2003.
2003 Microsoft Windows Server 2003 is released March 28, 2003.
2003 Microsoft Windows XP 64-Bit Edition (Version 2003) for Itanium 2 systems is released on March 28, 2003.
2003 Microsoft Windows XP Media Center Edition 2003 is released on December 18, 2003.
2004 Microsoft Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005 is released on October 12, 2004.
2005 Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition is released on April 24, 2005.
2005 Microsoft announces it’s next operating system, codenamed “Longhorn” will be named Windows Vista on July 23, 2005.
2006 Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows Vista to corporations on November 30, 2006.
2007 Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows Vista and Office 2007 to the general public January 30, 2007.
2008 Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows Server 2008 to the public on February 27, 2008.
2009 Microsoft releases Windows 7 October 22, 2009.
2012 Microsoft releases Windows 8 October 26, 2012.

Windows8_03-kmsraj51

 

Source: Computerhope

Note::-

यदि आपके पास Hindi या English में कोई article, inspirational story, Poetry या जानकारी है जो आप हमारे साथ share करना चाहते हैं तो कृपया उसे अपनी फोटो के साथ E-mail करें. हमारी Id है::- kmsraj51@yahoo.in . पसंद आने पर हम उसे आपके नाम और फोटो के साथ यहाँ PUBLISH करेंगे. Thanks!!

 

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95+ देश के पाठकों द्वारा पढ़ा जाने वाला वेबसाइट है,, –

https://kmsraj51.wordpress.com/

मैं अपने सभी प्रिय पाठकों का आभारी हूं….. 

 I am grateful to all my dear readers …..

“तू न हो निराश कभी मन से” book

~Change your mind thoughts~

 

@2014-all rights reserve under kmsraj51.

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Internet History

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Internet History

Internet-kmsraj51

Internet History

Year Event
1960 AT&T introduces the dataphone and the first known MODEM.
1961 Leonard Kleinrock publishes his first paper entitled “Information Flow in Large Communication Nets” is published May 31, 1961.
1962 Leonard Kleinrock releases his paper talking about packetization.
1962 Paul Baran suggests transmission of data using fixed size message blocks.
1962 J.C.R. Licklider becomes the first Director of IPTO and gives his vision of a galactic network.
1964 Baran publishes reports “On Distributed Communications.”
1964 Leonard Kleinrock publishes his first book on packet nets entitled Communication Nets: Stochastic Message Flow and Design.
1965 Lawrence G. Roberts with MIT performs the first long distant dial-up connection between a TX-2 computer in Massachusetts and Tom Marill with a Q-32 at SDC in California.
1965 Donald Davies coins the word “Packet.”
1966 Lawrence G. Roberts and Tom Marill publish a paper about their earlier success at connecting over dial-up.
1966 Robert Taylor joins ARPA and brings Larry Roberts there to develop ARPANET.
1967 Donald Davies creates 1-node NPL packet net.
1967 Wes Clark suggests use of a minicomputer for network packet switch.
1968 Doug Englebart publicly demonstrates Hypertext on December 9, 1968.
1968 The first Network Working Group (NWG) meeting is held.
1968 Larry Roberts publishes ARPANET program plan on June 3, 1968.
1968 First RFP for a network goes out.
1968 UCLA is selected to be the first node on the Internet as we know it today and serve as the Network Msmnt Center.
1969 Steve Crocker releases RFC #1 on April 7, 1979 introducing the Host-to-Host and talking about the IMP software.
1969 UCLA puts out a press release introducing the public to the Internet on July 3, 1969.
1969 On August 29, 1969 the first network switch and the first piece of network equipment (called “IMP”, which is short for Interface Message Processor) is sent to UCLA.
1969 On September 2, 1969 the first data moves from UCLA host to the IMP switch.
1969 CompuServe, the first commercial online service, is established.
1970 Steve Crocker and UCLA team releases NCP.
1971 Ray Tomlinson sends the first e-mail, the first messaging system to send messages across a network to other users.
1972 First public demo of ARPANET.
1972 Norm Abramson’ Alohanet connected to ARPANET: packet radio nets.
1973 Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn design TCP during 1973 and later publish it with the help of Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine in December of 1974 in RFC 675.
1973 ARPA deploys SATNET the first international connection.
1973 Robert Metcalfe creates the Ethernet at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC).
1973 The first VoIP call is made.
1974 A commercial version of ARPANET known as Telenet is introduced and considered by many to be the first Internet Service Provider (ISP).
1978 TCP splits into TCP/IP driven by Danny Cohen, David Reed, and John Shoch to support real-time traffic. This allows the creation of UDP.
1978 John Shoch and Jon Hupp at Xerox PARC develop the first worm.
1981 BITNET is founded.
1983 ARPANET standardizes TCP/IP.
1984 Paul Mockapetris and Jon Postel introduce DNS.
1986 Eric Thomas develops the first Listserv.
1986 NSFNET is created.
1986 BITNET II is created.
1988 First T-1 backbone is added to ARPANET.
1988 Bitnet and CSNET merge to create CREN.
1990 ARPANET replaced by NSFNET.
1990 The first search engine Archie, written by Alan Emtage, Bill Heelan, and Mike Parker at McGill University in Montreal Canada is released on September 10, 1990
1991 Tim Berners-Lee introduces WWW to the public on August 6, 1991.
1991 NSF opens the Internet to commercial use.
1992 Internet Society formed.
1992 NSFNET upgraded to T-3 backbone.
1993 The White House and the United Nations come online in 1993 and help start the .gov and .org top level domains.
1993 The NCSA releases the Mosaic browser.
1994 Netscape (Mosaic Communications corporation) is found by Marc Andreesen and James H. Clark April 4, 1994.
1994 Mosaic Netscape 0.9, the first Netscape browser is officially released October 13, 1994. This browser also introduces the Internet to Cookies.
1994 WXYC (89.3 FM Chapel Hill, NC USA) becomes first traditional radio station to announce broadcasting on the Internet November 7, 1994.
1994 Tim Berners-Lee establishes and heads the W3C in October 1994.
1995 The dot-com boom starts.
1995 The SSL protocol is developed and introduced by Netscape in February 1995.
1995 On April 1, 1995 the Opera browser is released.
1995 The first VoIP software (Vocaltec) is released allowing end users to make voice calls over the Internet.
1995 On August 16, 1995 Microsoft introduces and releases Microsoft Internet Explorer.
1995 On November 24, 1995 HTML 2.0 is introduced in RFC 1866.
1995 On December 4, 1995 Sun Microsystems announced JavaScript and first releases it in Netscape 2.0B3. In the same year they also introduced Java.
1996 Telecom Act deregulates data networks.
1996 Now known as Adobe Flash, Macromedia Flash is introduced in 1996.
1996 The first CSS specification, CSS 1, is published by the W3C in December 1996.
1996 More e-mail is sent than postal mail in USA.
1996 CREN ended its support and since then the network has cease to exist.
1997 Internet2 consortium is established.
1997 IEEE releases 802.11 (WiFi) standard.
1998 Internet weblogs begin to appear.
1998 XML becomes a W3C recommendation February 10, 1998.
1999 Napster starts sharing files in September of 1999.
1999 On December 1, 1999 the most expensive Internet domain name business.com was sold by Marc Ostrofsky for $7.5 Million The domain was later sold on July 26, 2007 again to R.H. Donnelley for $345 Million USD.
2000 The dot-com bubble starts to burst.
2003 January 7, 2003 CREN‘s members decided to dissolve the organization.
2003 On June 30, 2003 the Safari browser is released.
2004 On November 9, 2004 Mozilla releases the Mozilla Firefox browser.
2008 On December 11, 2008 the Google Chrome.

Source : Computerhope

Note::-

यदि आपके पास Hindi “or” English में कोई article, inspirational story, Poetry या जानकारी है जो आप हमारे साथ share करना चाहते हैं तो कृपया उसे अपनी फोटो के साथ E-mail करें. हमारी Id है::- kmsraj51@yahoo.in . पसंद आने पर हम उसे आपके नाम और फोटो के साथ यहाँ PUBLISH करेंगे. Thanks!!

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“हमारी सफलता इस बात पर निर्भर करती है कि हम अपने जीवन का कुछ सेकंड, प्रतिघंटा और प्रतिदिन कैसे बिताते हैं”
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-A Message To All-

मत करो हतोत्साहित अपने शब्दों से ……आने वाली नयी पीढ़ी को ,
वो भी करेंगे कुछ ऐसा एक दिन…. जिसे देखेगा ज़माना ….पकड़ती हुई नयी सीढ़ी को ॥

95+ देश के पाठकों द्वारा पढ़ा जाने वाला वेबसाइट है,, –

https://kmsraj51.wordpress.com/

मैं अपने सभी प्रिय पाठकों का आभारी हूं….. 

 I am grateful to all my dear readers …..

“तू न हो निराश कभी मन से” book

~Change your mind thoughts~

 

@2014-all rights reserve under kmsraj51.

——————– —– https://kmsraj51.wordpress.com/ —– ——————

वेब का इतिहास-(History of the Web)!!

kmsraj51 की कलम से …..

वेब का इतिहास(History of the Web)
Concept internet communication

Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989, about 20 years after the first connection was established over what is today known as the Internet. At the time, Tim was a software engineer at CERN, the large particle physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland. Many scientists participated in experiments at CERN for extended periods of time, then returned to their laboratories around the world. These scientists were eager to exchange data and results, but had difficulties doing so. Tim understood this need, and understood the unrealized potential of millions of computers connected together through the Internet.

Tim documented what was to become the World Wide Web with the submission of a proposal to his management at CERN, in late 1989 (see the proposal.), This proposal specified a set of technologies that would make the Internet truly accessible and useful to people. Believe it or not, Tim’s initial proposal was not immediately accepted. However, Tim persevered. By October of 1990, he had specified the three fundamental technologies that remain the foundation of today’s Web (and which you may have seen appear on parts of your Web browser):

=> HTML: HyperText Markup Language. The publishing format for the Web, including the ability to format documents and link to other documents and resources.

=> URI: Uniform Resource Identifier. A kind of “address” that is unique to each resource on the Web.

=> HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol. Allows for the retrieval of linked resources from across the Web.

Tim also wrote the first Web page editor/browser (“WorldWideWeb”) and the first Web server (“httpd“). By the end of 1990, the first Web page was served. By 1991, people outside of CERN joined the new Web community. Very important to the growth of the Web, CERN announced in April 1993 that the World Wide Web technology would be available for anyone to use on a royalty-free basis.

Since that time, the Web has changed the world. It has arguably become the most powerful communication medium the world has ever known. Whereas only 25% of the people on the planet are currently using the Web (and the Web Foundation aims to accelerate this growth substantially), the Web has changed the way we teach and learn, buy and sell, inform and are informed, agree and disagree, share and collaborate, meet and love, and tackle problems ranging from putting food on our tables to curing cancer.

Tim Berners-Lee and others realized that for the Web to reach its full potential, the underlying technologies must become global standards, implemented in the same way around the world. Therefore, in 1994, Tim founded the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) as a place for stakeholders to reach consensus around the specification and guidelines to ensure that the Web works for everyone and that it evolves in a responsible manner. W3C standards have enabled a single World Wide Web of information and people, and an increasingly-rich set of capabilities: Web 2.0 (personal and dynamic), Web 3.0 (a semantic Web of linked data), Web services, voice access, mobile access, accessibility for people with disabilities and for people speaking many languages, richer graphics and video, etc. The Web Foundation supports the work of W3C to ensure that the Web and the technologies that underpin it remain free and open to all.

With over 1 trillion public pages (in 2008) and 1.7 billion people on the Web (in 2009), we do not really understand how these pieces work together and how to best improve the Web into the future. In 2005, Tim and colleagues started the Web Science Trust (WST). WST is building an international, multidisciplinary research community to examine the World Wide Web as “humanity connected by technology”. WST brings together computer scientists, sociologists, mathematicians, policy experts, entrepreneurs, decision makers and many others from around the world to better understand today’s Web and to develop solutions to guide the use and design of tomorrow’s Web. The Web Foundation believes the discipline of Web Science is critically important to advancing the Web, and supports WST‘s efforts to build and coordinate this new field of study.

Most of the history of the Web is ahead of us. The Web is far from reaching its full potential as an agent of empowerment for everyone in the world. Web access through the world’s 4+ billion mobile phones is an incredible opportunity. New Web technologies will enable billions of people currently excluded from the Web community to join it. We must understand the Web and improve its capabilities. We must ensure that Web technologies are free and open for all to leverage. The work of the Web Foundation aims to have a substantial, positive impact on all of these factors, and on the future history of the Web.

==========kmsraj51==========

Note::-
यदि आपके पास Hindi या English में कोई article, inspirational story, Poetry या जानकारी है जो आप हमारे साथ share करना चाहते हैं तो कृपया उसे अपनी फोटो के साथ E-mail करें. हमारी Id है::- kmsraj51@yahoo.in . पसंद आने पर हम उसे आपके नाम और फोटो के साथ यहाँ PUBLISH करेंगे. Thanks!!

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The Top 30 Internet Terms for Beginners, 2014

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WWW ( World Wide Web)
Concept internet communication

Welcome, readers! As you strive to make sense of the Internet and the World Wide Web, these 30 terms are bound to be very helpful.

1. The Web vs. the Internet

The Internet is a vast ‘interconnection of computer networks’. It is comprised of millions of computing devices that trade volumes of information. Desktop computers, mainframes, GPS units, cell phones, car alarms, video game consoles, and even soda pop machines are connected to the Net.

The Internet started in the late 1960’s as an American military project, and has since evolved into a massive public spiderweb. No single organization owns or controls the Internet. The Net has grown into a spectacular mishmash of non-profit, private sector, government, and entrepreneurial broadcasters.

The Internet houses many layers of information, with each layer dedicated to a different kind of documentation. These different layers are called ‘protocols’. The most popular protocols are the World Wide Web, FTP, Telnet, Gopherspace, instant messaging, and email.

The World Wide Web, or ‘Web’ for short, is the most popular portion of the Internet. The Web is viewed through web browser software.

Grammar and spelling note: Use capitalized ‘Internet’ and ‘Web’ when using either word as a noun. Use lowercase ‘internet’ or ‘web’ when using either word as an adjective. e.g. ‘We were browsing the Internet on our television last night.’ e.g. ‘We found a really good web page about global warming.’

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2. http and https

http is a technical acronym that means ‘hypertext transfer protocol’, the language of web pages. When a web page has this prefix, then your links, text, and pictures should work in your web browser.

https is ‘hypertext transfer protocol SECURED’. This means that the web page has a special layer of encryption added to hide your personal information and passwords. Whenever you log into your online bank or your web email account, you should see https at the front of the page address.

:// is the strange expression for ‘this is a computer protocol’. We add these 3 characters in a Web address to denote which set of computer lanaguage rules affect the document you are viewing.

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3. Browser

A browser is a free software package that lets you view web pages, graphics, and most online content. Browser software is specifically designed to convert HTML and XML into readable documents.

The most popular web browsers in 2013 are: Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari.

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4. HTML and XML

Hypertext Markup Language is the programmatic language that web pages are based on. HTML commands your web browser to display text and graphics in orderly fashion. HTML uses commands called ‘HTML tags’ that look like the following:

XML is eXtensible Markup Language, a cousin to HTML. XML focuses on cataloging and databasing the text content of a web page. XML commands look like the following:

XHTML is a combination of HTML and XML.

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5. URL

URL’s, or ‘uniform resource locators’, are the web browser addresses of internet pages and files. A URL works together with IP addresses to help us name, locate, and bookmark specific pages and files for our web browsers.

URL’s commonly use three parts to address a page or file: the protocol (which is the portion ending in ‘//:’); the host computer (which sometimes ends in .com); and the filename/pagename itself. For example:

https://personal.bankofamerica.com/login/password.htm
http://forums.about.com/ab-guitar/?msg61989.1
ftp://files.microsoft.com/public/eBookreader.msi
telnet://freenet.edmonton.ca/main

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6. IP Address

Your computer’s ‘internet protocol’ address is a four-part or eight-part electronic serial number. An IP address can look something like ‘202.3.104.55’ or like ’21DA:D3:0:2F3B:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A’, complete with dot or colon separators. Every computer, cell phone, and device that accesses the Internet is assigned at least one IP address for tracking purposes. Wherever you browse, whenever you send an email or instant message, and whenever you download a file, your IP address acts like a type of automobile licence plate to enforce accountability and traceability.

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7. Email

Email (formerly spelled e-mail with a hyphen) is electronic mail. It is the sending and receiving of typewritten messages from one screen to another. Email is usually handled by a webmail service (e.g. Gmail or Yahoomail), or an installed software package (e.g. Microsoft Outlook).

Email has many cousins: text messaging, instant messaging, live chat, videomail (v-mail), Google Waving.

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8. Blogs and Blogging

A blog (‘web log’) is a modern online writer’s column. Amateur and professional writers publish their blogs on most every kind of topic: their hobby interest in paintball and tennis, their opinions on health care, their commentaries on celebrity gossip, photo blogs of favorite pictures, tech tips on using Microsoft Office. Absolutely anyone can start a blog, and some people actually make reasonable incomes by selling advertising on their blog pages.

Web logs are usually arranged chronologically, and with less formality than a full website. Blogs vary in quality from very amateurish to very professional. It costs nothing to start your own personal blog.

The 15 best blogging and publishing platforms on the Internet today. Which one is for you?

=> WordPress

=> Blogger

=> Tumblr

=> Medium

=> Svbtle

=> Quora

=> Postach.io

=> Google+

=> Facebook Notes

=> SETT

=> Ghost

=> Squarespace

=> Typepad

=> Posthaven

=> LinkedIn Influencers

=> The fallen heroes

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9. Social Media and Social Bookmarking

Social media is the broad term for any online tool that enables users to interact with thousands of other users. Instant messaging and chatting are common forms of social media, as are blogs with comments, discussion forums, video-sharing and photo-sharing websites. Facebook.com and MySpace.com are very large social media sites, as are YouTube.com and Digg.com.

Social bookmarking is a the specific form of social media. Social bookmarking is where users interact by recommending websites to each other (‘tagging sites’).

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10. ISP

ISP is Internet Service Provider. That is the private company or government organization that plugs you into the vast Internet around the world. Your ISP will offer varying services for varying prices: web page access, email, hosting your own web page, hosting your own blog, and so on. ISP’s will also offer various Internet connection speeds for a monthly fee. (e.g. ultra high speed Internet vs economy Internet).

Today, you will also hear about WISP’s, which are Wireless Internet Service Providers. They cater to laptop users who travel regularly.

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11. Download

Downloading is a broad term that describes when you make a personal copy of something you find on the Internet or World Wide Web. Commonly, downloading is associated with songs, music, and software files (e.g. “I want to download a new musical ringtone for my cell phone”, “I want to download a trial copy of Microsoft Office 2010”). The larger the file you are copying, the longer the download will take to transfer to your computer. Some downloads will take 12 to 15 hours, depending on your Internet speed.

Be warned: downloading itself is fully legal, as long as you are careful not to download pirated movies and music.

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12. Malware

Malware is the broad term to describe any malicious software designed by hackers. Malware includes: viruses, trojans, ratware, keyloggers, zombie programs, and any other software that seeks to do one of four things:

vandalize your computer in some way
steal your private information
take remote control of your computer (‘zombie’ your computer) for other ends
manipulate you into purchasing something
Malware programs are the time bombs and wicked minions of dishonest programmers.

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13. Router (aka ‘Network Router’)

A router, or in many cases, a router-modem combination, is the hardware device that acts as the traffic cop for network signals into your home. A router can be wired or wireless or both. Your router provides both a defense against hackers, and the redirection service of deciding which specific computer or printer should get which signals in your home. If your router or router-modem is configured correctly, your Internet speed will be fast, and hackers will be locked out. If your router is poorly configured, you will experience network sluggishness and possible hacker intrusions.

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14. Keywords and Tags/Labels

Keywords are search terms used to locate documents. Keywords are anywhere from one to five words long, separated by spaces or commas: e.g. “horseback riding calgary” e.g. “ipad purchasing advice” e.g. “ebay tips selling”. Keywords are the foundation for cataloging the Web, and the primary means by which you and I will find anything on the Web.

Tags (sometimes called ‘labels’) are recommendation keywords. Tags and labels focus on crosslinking you to related content… they are the modern evolution of ‘suggestions for further reading’.

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15. Texting/Chatting

Texting is the short way to say ‘text messaging’, the sending of short electronic notes usually from a cell phone or handheld electronic device. Texting is popular with people who are mobile and away from their desk computers. Texting is something like the pagers of old, but has the file attachment ability of email.

To send a text message, you will usually need a keyboard-enabled cellphone and a text message service through your cellphone provider. You address your text messages using the recipient’s phone number.

In 2010, texting has spawned a controversial habit called ‘sexting’, which is when young people send sexual photos of themselves to other cell phone users.

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16. I.M.

I.M. (usually spelled ‘IM’ without the periods) is instant messaging, a form of modern online chatting. IM is somewhat like texting, somewhat like email, and very much like sending notes in a classroom. IM uses specialized no-cost software that you install on your computer. That IM software in turn connects you to potentially thousands of other IM users through the Internet. You locate existing friends and make new friends by searching for their IM nicknames.

Once the software and your friends list is in place, you can send instantaneous short messages to each other, with the option of including file attachments and links. While the recipient sees your message instantly, they can choose to reply at their leisure.

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17. P2P

P2P file sharing (‘peer-to-peer’) is the most voluminous Internet activity today. P2P is the cooperative trading of files amongst thousands of individual users. P2P participants install special software on their computers, and then voluntarily share their music, movies, ebooks, and software files with each other.

Through ‘uploading’ and ‘downloading’, users trade files that are anywhere from 1 megabyte to 5 gigabytes large. This activity, while in itself a fully legal pasttime, is very controversial because thousands of copyrighted songs and movies trade hands through P2P.

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18. E-commerce

E-commerce is ‘electronic commerce’: the transacting of business selling and buying online. Every day, billions of dollars exchange hands through the Internet and World Wide Web. Sometimes, the e-commerce is your company buying office products from another company (business-to-business ‘B2B’ e-commerce). Sometimes, the e-ecommerce is when you make a private purchase as a retail customer from an online vendor (business-to-consumer ‘B2C’ e-commerce).

E-commerce works because reasonable privacy can be assured through technical means (e.g. https secure web pages), and because modern business values the Internet as a transaction medium.

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19. Bookmark

A bookmark (aka “favorite”) is a marker that you can place on web pages and files. You would bookmark something because:

=> You want to return to the page or file later
=> You want to recommend the page or file to someone else

Bookmarks/Favorites can be made using your right mouse click menu, or the menus/toolbars at the top of your web browser. Bookmarks/Favorites can also be made on your Mac or Windows computer files.

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20. Social Engineering

Social engineering is the conman art of talking directly to people to trick them into divulging passwords and their private information. All social engineering attacks are some form of a masquerade or phishing attack, designed to convince you that the attacker is trustworthy as a friend or as a legitimate authority figure. The attacker might use an email, phone call, or even face-time interview to deceive you. Common social engineering attacks include greeting cards, bogus lottery winnings, stock investment scams, warnings from an alleged banker that you’ve been hacked, credit card companies pretending to protect you.

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21. Phishing and Whaling

‘Phishing’ is what modern-day con men do to defraud you of your personal accounts. Phishing is the use of convincing-looking emails and web pages to lure you into typing your account numbers and passwords/PINs. Often in the form of fake eBay web pages, fake PayPal warning messages, and fake bank login screens, phishing attacks can be very convincing to anyone who is not trained to watch for the subtle clues. As a rule, smart users distrust any email link that says “you should login and confirm this”.

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22. Addons and Plugins

Addons are custom software modifications. User optionally install addons to improve the power of their Web browsers or office software. Examples include: a custom eBay toolbar for your Firefox browser, a new search feature for your Outlook email. Most addons are free, and can be found and downloaded from the Web.

Plugins are a special kind of web browser addon. Plugins are essentially required addons, if you wish to view very specialized web pages. Examples include: Adobe Flash or Shockwave player, Microsoft Silverlight player, Adobe Acrobat pdf reader.

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23. Trojan

A trojan is a special kind of hacker program that relies on the user to welcome it and activate it. Named after the famous Trojan horse tale, a trojan program masquerades as a legitimate file or software program. Sometimes it will be an innocent-looking movie file, or an installer that pretends to be actual anti-hacker software. The power of the trojan attack comes from users naively downloading and running the trojan file.

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24. Spamming and Filtering

‘Spam’ has two meanings. 1) Spam can mean ‘the rapid reptition of a keyboard command’. But more commonly, 2) spam is the jargon name of ‘unwanted/unsolicited email’. Spam email is usually comprised of two sub-categories: high-volume advertising, and hackers attempting to lure you into divulging your passwords.

Filtering is the popular-but-imperfect defense against spam. Filtering uses software that reads your incoming email for keyword combinations, andthen either deletes or quarantines messages that appear to be spam. Look for a ‘spam’ or ‘junk’ folder in your mailbox to see your quarantine of filtered email.

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25. Cloud Computing and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)

Cloud computing is a fancy term to describe that your software is online and ‘borrowed’, instead of purchased and actually installed on your computer. Web-based email is the most prevalent example of cloud computing: the users’ email is all stored and accessed ‘in the cloud’ of the Internet, and not actually on their own computers. This is the modern version of the 1970’s mainframe computing model. As part of the cloud computing model, ‘Software as a Service’ is the business model that claims people would rather rent software than actually own it. With their web browsers, users access the cloud of the Internet, and log into their online rented copies of their SaaS software.

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26. Apps and Applets

Apps and applets are small software applications. They are designed to be much smaller than regular computer software, but still provide very useful functions. Lately, apps are very popular with cellphone and mobile platforms; specifically: with the Apple iPhone and the Google Android phone.

Examples of apps: rangefinder GPS for golfing, song identification software, restaurant reviews, pocket video games, language translators for traveling.

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27. Encryption and Authentication

Encryption is the mathematical scrambling of data so that it is hidden from eavesdroppers. Encryption uses complex math formulas (‘ciphers’) to turn private data into meaningless gobbledygook that only trusted readers can unscramble. Encryption is the basis for how we use the public Internet as a pipeline to conduct trusted business, like online banking and online credit card purchasing. On the provision that reliable encryption is in place, your banking information and credit card numbers are kept private.

Authentication is directly related to encryption. Authentication is the complex way that computer systems verify that you are who you say you are.

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28. Ports and Port Forwarding

‘Network ports’ are thousands of tiny electronic ‘lanes’ that comprise your network connection. Every computer has 65,536 tiny ports, through which Internetworking data travels in and out. By using port management tools like a hardware router, users can control port access to better safeguard themselves against hackers.

‘Port forwarding’ is the semi-complex technique of opening specific network ports. You would port-forward to speed up your downloading and speed up your online connections for gaming and teleconferencing.

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29. Firewall

Firewall is a generic term to describe ‘a barrier against destruction’. It comes from the building term of a protective wall to prevent the spreading of housefires or engine compartment fires. In the case of computing, ‘firewall’ means to have software and/or hardware protecting you from hackers and viruses.

Computing firewalls range from small antivirus software packages, to very complex and expensive software + hardware solutions. All the many kinds of computer firewalls offer some kind of safeguard against hackers vandalizing or taking over your computer system.

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30. Archives and Archiving

A computer ‘archive’ is one of two things: a compressed container of multiple smaller data files, or a purposeful long-term storage of files that are not going to be used often. In some cases, an archive can be both.

The act of ‘archiving’, similarly, is one of two things: to combine and squeeze multiple files into a larger single file (for easier emailing); or, archiving is when you will retire data and documents to be put into long-term storage (e.g. your thousands of old emails in your inbox).

Source:: http://www.about.com/

Note::-
यदि आपके पास Hindi या English में कोई article, inspirational story, Poetry या जानकारी है जो आप हमारे साथ share करना चाहते हैं तो कृपया उसे अपनी फोटो के साथ E-mail करें. हमारी Id है::- kmsraj51@yahoo.in . पसंद आने पर हम उसे आपके नाम और फोटो के साथ यहाँ PUBLISH करेंगे. Thanks!!

Google-internet-006

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Windows 8.1 Keyboard Shortcuts !!

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We have put together a list of 15 new keyboard shortcuts you can use on Windows 8.1.

15 – Usefull Keyboard Shortcuts

Shortcut Action

Windows Key + S => Open Search Charm to search Windows and Web

Windows Key + Q => Search within the opened app

Windows Key + F => Search files

Windows Key + Z => Get Commands and Context Menus within an app

Windows Key + . + Right Arrow => Snap app to the right

Windows Key + . + Left Arrow => Snap app to the left

Ctrl + Plus (+) => Zoom in on Start Screen

Ctrl + Minus (-) => Zoom out on Start Screen

Windows Key + Down Arrow => Close an app

Windows Key + Start Typing => Search your PC

Windows Key + O => Lock the screen orientation (portrait or landscape)

Windows Key + Ctrl + Spacebar => Change to a previously selected input language

Windows Key + P => Choose a presentation display mode

Windows Key + X => Open Start Button options

Windows Key + Home => Minimize all but the active desktop window

Note::-
यदि आपके पास Hindi या English में कोई article, inspirational story, Poetry या जानकारी है जो आप हमारे साथ share करना चाहते हैं तो कृपया उसे अपनी फोटो के साथ E-mail करें. हमारी Id है::- kmsraj51@yahoo.in . पसंद आने पर हम उसे आपके नाम और फोटो के साथ यहाँ PUBLISH करेंगे. Thanks!!

HD - KMSRAJ51

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Windows XP – Support is ending soon

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Support is ending soon
On April 8, 2014, support and updates for Windows XP will no longer be available. Don’t let your PC go unprotected.


What is Windows XP end of support?
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Microsoft has provided support for Windows XP for the past 12 years. But now the time has come for us, along with our hardware and software partners, to invest our resources toward supporting more recent technologies so that we can continue to deliver great new experiences.

As a result, after April 8, 2014, technical assistance for Windows XP will no longer be available, including automatic updates that help protect your PC. Microsoft will also stop providing Microsoft Security Essentials for download on Windows XP on this date. (If you already have Microsoft Security Essentials installed, you will continue to receive antimalware signature updates for a limited time, but this does not mean that your PC will be secure because Microsoft will no longer be providing security updates to help protect your PC.)

If you continue to use Windows XP after support ends, your computer will still work but it might become more vulnerable to security risks and viruses. Also, as more software and hardware manufacturers continue to optimize for more recent versions of Windows, you can expect to encounter greater numbers of apps and devices that do not work with Windows XP.

Desktop

What does it mean if my version of Windows is no longer supported?
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An unsupported version of Windows will no longer receive software updates from Windows Update. These include security updates that can help protect your PC from harmful viruses, spyware, and other malicious software, which can steal your personal information. Windows Update also installs the latest software updates to improve the reliability of Windows—new drivers for your hardware and more.

Support end dates

Here are the dates when support will end for PCs running Windows XP and Windows Vista without the latest service packs:

Support for Windows XP is ending on April 8, 2014. For more information, see Support is ending for Windows XP.

Support for Windows Vista Service Pack 1 (SP1) ended on July 12, 2011. To continue support, make sure you’ve installed Windows Vista Service Pack 2 (SP2).

Support for Windows Vista without any service packs ended on April 13, 2010. To continue support, make sure you’ve installed Windows Vista SP2.

Support for Windows XP SP2 ended on July 13, 2010. To continue support, make sure you’ve installed Windows XP Service Pack 3 (SP3).

How do I stay protected?
To stay protected after support ends, you have two options:

Upgrade your current PC
Very few older computers will be able to run Windows 8.1, which is the latest version of Windows. We recommend that you download and run the Windows Upgrade Assistant to check if your PC meets the system requirements for Windows 8.1 and then follow the steps in the tutorial to upgrade if your PC is able. For more detailed information, read the FAQ…..
=> http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-8/upgrade-to-windows-8

Get a new PC

If your current PC can’t run Windows 8.1, it might be time to consider shopping for a new one. Be sure to explore our great selection of new PCs. They’re more powerful, lightweight, and stylish than ever before—and with an average price that’s considerably less expensive than the average PC was 10 years ago.

Find Your Perfect PC

http://www.microsoft.com/windows/en-us/xp/pcs-and-offers.aspx?ocid=XPEOS_O_WOL_NULL_NULL

How do I move all my Windows XP stuff to a new PC?

You can move your Windows XP stuff with Laplink, a free data migration solution that will walk you through all the steps to getting your files, setings, and user profiles from your Windows XP PC to your new Windows laptop, desktop, or tablet. (Note that you will need your Windows XP PC to migrate your data, and you can only migrate to a PC running Windows 7, Windows 8, or Windows 8.1.)

What do I get with Windows 8.1?

Windows 8.1 makes it easy to do all the things you’re used to doing with Windows XP while opening up a whole new world of possibilities for you to explore and enjoy.

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Note::-
यदि आपके पास Hindi “OR” English में कोई article, inspirational story, Poetry या जानकारी है जो आप हमारे साथ share करना चाहते हैं तो कृपया उसे अपनी फोटो के साथ E-mail करें. हमारी Id है::- kmsraj51@yahoo.in . पसंद आने पर हम उसे आपके नाम और फोटो के साथ यहाँ PUBLISH करेंगे. Thanks!!

HD - KMSRAJ51

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