Microsoft Windows history

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Microsoft Windows history


Year Event
See the codename definition for a listing of Microsoft codenames.
1983 Bill Gates announces Microsoft Windows November 10, 1983.
1985 Microsoft Windows 1.0 is introduced in November 20, 1985 and is initially sold for $100.00.
1987 Microsoft Windows 2.0 was released December 9, 1987 and is initially sold for $100.00.
1987 Microsoft Windows/386 or Windows 386 is introduced December 9, 1987 and is initially sold for $100.00.
1988 Microsoft Windows/286 or Windows 286 is introduced June, 1988 and is initially sold for $100.00.
1990 Microsoft Windows 3.0 was released May, 22 1990. Microsoft Windows 3.0 full version was priced at $149.95 and the upgrade version was priced at $79.95.
1991 Following its decision not to develop operating systems cooperatively with IBM, Microsoftchanges the name of OS/2 to Windows NT.
1991 Microsoft Windows 3.0 or Windows 3.0a with multimedia was released October, 1991.
1992 Microsoft Windows 3.1 was released April, 1992 and sells more than 1 Million copies within the first two months of its release.
1992 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups 3.1 was released October, 1992.
1993 Microsoft Windows NT 3.1 was released July 27, 1993.
1993 Microsoft Windows 3.11, an update to Windows 3.1 is released December 31, 1993.
1993 The number of licensed users of Microsoft Windows now totals more than 25 Million.
1994 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups 3.11 was released February, 1994.
1994 Microsoft Windows NT 3.5 was released September 21, 1994.
1995 Microsoft Windows NT 3.51 was released May 30, 1995.
1995 Microsoft Windows 95 was released August 24, 1995 and sells more than 1 Million copies within 4 days.
1995 Microsoft Windows 95 Service Pack 1 (4.00.950A) is released February 14, 1996.
1996 Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 was released July 29, 1996.
1996 Microsoft Windows 95 (4.00.950B) aka OSR2 with FAT32 and MMX support is released August 24, 1996.
1996 Microsoft Windows CE 1.0 was released November, 1996.
1997 Microsoft Windows CE 2.0 was released November, 1997.
1997 Microsoft Windows 95 (4.00.950C) aka OSR2.5 is released November 26, 1997.
1998 Microsoft Windows 98 was released June, 1998.
1998 Microsoft Windows CE 2.1 was released July, 1998.
1998 In October of 1998 Microsoft announced that future releases of Windows NT would no longer have the initials of NT and that the next edition would be Windows 2000.
1999 Microsoft Windows 98 SE (Second Edition) was released May 5, 1999.
1999 Microsoft Windows CE 3.0 was released 1999.
2000 On January 4th at CES Bill Gates announces the new version of Windows CE will be called Pocket PC.
2000 Microsoft Windows 2000 was released February 17, 2000.
2000 Microsoft Windows ME (Millennium) released June 19, 2000.
2001 Microsoft Windows XP is released October 25, 2001.
2001 Microsoft Windows XP 64-Bit Edition (Version 2002) for Itanium systems is released March 28, 2003.
2003 Microsoft Windows Server 2003 is released March 28, 2003.
2003 Microsoft Windows XP 64-Bit Edition (Version 2003) for Itanium 2 systems is released on March 28, 2003.
2003 Microsoft Windows XP Media Center Edition 2003 is released on December 18, 2003.
2004 Microsoft Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005 is released on October 12, 2004.
2005 Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition is released on April 24, 2005.
2005 Microsoft announces it’s next operating system, codenamed “Longhorn” will be named Windows Vista on July 23, 2005.
2006 Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows Vista to corporations on November 30, 2006.
2007 Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows Vista and Office 2007 to the general public January 30, 2007.
2008 Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows Server 2008 to the public on February 27, 2008.
2009 Microsoft releases Windows 7 October 22, 2009.
2012 Microsoft releases Windows 8 October 26, 2012.



Source: Computerhope


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kmsraj51- C Y M T


95+ देश के पाठकों द्वारा पढ़ा जाने वाला वेबसाइट है,, –

मैं अपने सभी प्रिय पाठकों का आभारी हूं….. 

 I am grateful to all my dear readers …..

“तू न हो निराश कभी मन से” book

~Change your mind thoughts~


@2014-all rights reserve under kmsraj51.

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Internet History

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Internet History


Internet History

Year Event
1960 AT&T introduces the dataphone and the first known MODEM.
1961 Leonard Kleinrock publishes his first paper entitled “Information Flow in Large Communication Nets” is published May 31, 1961.
1962 Leonard Kleinrock releases his paper talking about packetization.
1962 Paul Baran suggests transmission of data using fixed size message blocks.
1962 J.C.R. Licklider becomes the first Director of IPTO and gives his vision of a galactic network.
1964 Baran publishes reports “On Distributed Communications.”
1964 Leonard Kleinrock publishes his first book on packet nets entitled Communication Nets: Stochastic Message Flow and Design.
1965 Lawrence G. Roberts with MIT performs the first long distant dial-up connection between a TX-2 computer in Massachusetts and Tom Marill with a Q-32 at SDC in California.
1965 Donald Davies coins the word “Packet.”
1966 Lawrence G. Roberts and Tom Marill publish a paper about their earlier success at connecting over dial-up.
1966 Robert Taylor joins ARPA and brings Larry Roberts there to develop ARPANET.
1967 Donald Davies creates 1-node NPL packet net.
1967 Wes Clark suggests use of a minicomputer for network packet switch.
1968 Doug Englebart publicly demonstrates Hypertext on December 9, 1968.
1968 The first Network Working Group (NWG) meeting is held.
1968 Larry Roberts publishes ARPANET program plan on June 3, 1968.
1968 First RFP for a network goes out.
1968 UCLA is selected to be the first node on the Internet as we know it today and serve as the Network Msmnt Center.
1969 Steve Crocker releases RFC #1 on April 7, 1979 introducing the Host-to-Host and talking about the IMP software.
1969 UCLA puts out a press release introducing the public to the Internet on July 3, 1969.
1969 On August 29, 1969 the first network switch and the first piece of network equipment (called “IMP”, which is short for Interface Message Processor) is sent to UCLA.
1969 On September 2, 1969 the first data moves from UCLA host to the IMP switch.
1969 CompuServe, the first commercial online service, is established.
1970 Steve Crocker and UCLA team releases NCP.
1971 Ray Tomlinson sends the first e-mail, the first messaging system to send messages across a network to other users.
1972 First public demo of ARPANET.
1972 Norm Abramson’ Alohanet connected to ARPANET: packet radio nets.
1973 Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn design TCP during 1973 and later publish it with the help of Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine in December of 1974 in RFC 675.
1973 ARPA deploys SATNET the first international connection.
1973 Robert Metcalfe creates the Ethernet at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC).
1973 The first VoIP call is made.
1974 A commercial version of ARPANET known as Telenet is introduced and considered by many to be the first Internet Service Provider (ISP).
1978 TCP splits into TCP/IP driven by Danny Cohen, David Reed, and John Shoch to support real-time traffic. This allows the creation of UDP.
1978 John Shoch and Jon Hupp at Xerox PARC develop the first worm.
1981 BITNET is founded.
1983 ARPANET standardizes TCP/IP.
1984 Paul Mockapetris and Jon Postel introduce DNS.
1986 Eric Thomas develops the first Listserv.
1986 NSFNET is created.
1986 BITNET II is created.
1988 First T-1 backbone is added to ARPANET.
1988 Bitnet and CSNET merge to create CREN.
1990 ARPANET replaced by NSFNET.
1990 The first search engine Archie, written by Alan Emtage, Bill Heelan, and Mike Parker at McGill University in Montreal Canada is released on September 10, 1990
1991 Tim Berners-Lee introduces WWW to the public on August 6, 1991.
1991 NSF opens the Internet to commercial use.
1992 Internet Society formed.
1992 NSFNET upgraded to T-3 backbone.
1993 The White House and the United Nations come online in 1993 and help start the .gov and .org top level domains.
1993 The NCSA releases the Mosaic browser.
1994 Netscape (Mosaic Communications corporation) is found by Marc Andreesen and James H. Clark April 4, 1994.
1994 Mosaic Netscape 0.9, the first Netscape browser is officially released October 13, 1994. This browser also introduces the Internet to Cookies.
1994 WXYC (89.3 FM Chapel Hill, NC USA) becomes first traditional radio station to announce broadcasting on the Internet November 7, 1994.
1994 Tim Berners-Lee establishes and heads the W3C in October 1994.
1995 The dot-com boom starts.
1995 The SSL protocol is developed and introduced by Netscape in February 1995.
1995 On April 1, 1995 the Opera browser is released.
1995 The first VoIP software (Vocaltec) is released allowing end users to make voice calls over the Internet.
1995 On August 16, 1995 Microsoft introduces and releases Microsoft Internet Explorer.
1995 On November 24, 1995 HTML 2.0 is introduced in RFC 1866.
1995 On December 4, 1995 Sun Microsystems announced JavaScript and first releases it in Netscape 2.0B3. In the same year they also introduced Java.
1996 Telecom Act deregulates data networks.
1996 Now known as Adobe Flash, Macromedia Flash is introduced in 1996.
1996 The first CSS specification, CSS 1, is published by the W3C in December 1996.
1996 More e-mail is sent than postal mail in USA.
1996 CREN ended its support and since then the network has cease to exist.
1997 Internet2 consortium is established.
1997 IEEE releases 802.11 (WiFi) standard.
1998 Internet weblogs begin to appear.
1998 XML becomes a W3C recommendation February 10, 1998.
1999 Napster starts sharing files in September of 1999.
1999 On December 1, 1999 the most expensive Internet domain name was sold by Marc Ostrofsky for $7.5 Million The domain was later sold on July 26, 2007 again to R.H. Donnelley for $345 Million USD.
2000 The dot-com bubble starts to burst.
2003 January 7, 2003 CREN‘s members decided to dissolve the organization.
2003 On June 30, 2003 the Safari browser is released.
2004 On November 9, 2004 Mozilla releases the Mozilla Firefox browser.
2008 On December 11, 2008 the Google Chrome.

Source : Computerhope


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kmsraj51- C Y M T

“हमारी सफलता इस बात पर निर्भर करती है कि हम अपने जीवन का कुछ सेकंड, प्रतिघंटा और प्रतिदिन कैसे बिताते हैं”

-A Message To All-

मत करो हतोत्साहित अपने शब्दों से ……आने वाली नयी पीढ़ी को ,
वो भी करेंगे कुछ ऐसा एक दिन…. जिसे देखेगा ज़माना ….पकड़ती हुई नयी सीढ़ी को ॥

95+ देश के पाठकों द्वारा पढ़ा जाने वाला वेबसाइट है,, –

मैं अपने सभी प्रिय पाठकों का आभारी हूं….. 

 I am grateful to all my dear readers …..

“तू न हो निराश कभी मन से” book

~Change your mind thoughts~


@2014-all rights reserve under kmsraj51.

——————– —– —– ——————

वेब का इतिहास-(History of the Web)!!

kmsraj51 की कलम से …..

वेब का इतिहास(History of the Web)
Concept internet communication

Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989, about 20 years after the first connection was established over what is today known as the Internet. At the time, Tim was a software engineer at CERN, the large particle physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland. Many scientists participated in experiments at CERN for extended periods of time, then returned to their laboratories around the world. These scientists were eager to exchange data and results, but had difficulties doing so. Tim understood this need, and understood the unrealized potential of millions of computers connected together through the Internet.

Tim documented what was to become the World Wide Web with the submission of a proposal to his management at CERN, in late 1989 (see the proposal.), This proposal specified a set of technologies that would make the Internet truly accessible and useful to people. Believe it or not, Tim’s initial proposal was not immediately accepted. However, Tim persevered. By October of 1990, he had specified the three fundamental technologies that remain the foundation of today’s Web (and which you may have seen appear on parts of your Web browser):

=> HTML: HyperText Markup Language. The publishing format for the Web, including the ability to format documents and link to other documents and resources.

=> URI: Uniform Resource Identifier. A kind of “address” that is unique to each resource on the Web.

=> HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol. Allows for the retrieval of linked resources from across the Web.

Tim also wrote the first Web page editor/browser (“WorldWideWeb”) and the first Web server (“httpd“). By the end of 1990, the first Web page was served. By 1991, people outside of CERN joined the new Web community. Very important to the growth of the Web, CERN announced in April 1993 that the World Wide Web technology would be available for anyone to use on a royalty-free basis.

Since that time, the Web has changed the world. It has arguably become the most powerful communication medium the world has ever known. Whereas only 25% of the people on the planet are currently using the Web (and the Web Foundation aims to accelerate this growth substantially), the Web has changed the way we teach and learn, buy and sell, inform and are informed, agree and disagree, share and collaborate, meet and love, and tackle problems ranging from putting food on our tables to curing cancer.

Tim Berners-Lee and others realized that for the Web to reach its full potential, the underlying technologies must become global standards, implemented in the same way around the world. Therefore, in 1994, Tim founded the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) as a place for stakeholders to reach consensus around the specification and guidelines to ensure that the Web works for everyone and that it evolves in a responsible manner. W3C standards have enabled a single World Wide Web of information and people, and an increasingly-rich set of capabilities: Web 2.0 (personal and dynamic), Web 3.0 (a semantic Web of linked data), Web services, voice access, mobile access, accessibility for people with disabilities and for people speaking many languages, richer graphics and video, etc. The Web Foundation supports the work of W3C to ensure that the Web and the technologies that underpin it remain free and open to all.

With over 1 trillion public pages (in 2008) and 1.7 billion people on the Web (in 2009), we do not really understand how these pieces work together and how to best improve the Web into the future. In 2005, Tim and colleagues started the Web Science Trust (WST). WST is building an international, multidisciplinary research community to examine the World Wide Web as “humanity connected by technology”. WST brings together computer scientists, sociologists, mathematicians, policy experts, entrepreneurs, decision makers and many others from around the world to better understand today’s Web and to develop solutions to guide the use and design of tomorrow’s Web. The Web Foundation believes the discipline of Web Science is critically important to advancing the Web, and supports WST‘s efforts to build and coordinate this new field of study.

Most of the history of the Web is ahead of us. The Web is far from reaching its full potential as an agent of empowerment for everyone in the world. Web access through the world’s 4+ billion mobile phones is an incredible opportunity. New Web technologies will enable billions of people currently excluded from the Web community to join it. We must understand the Web and improve its capabilities. We must ensure that Web technologies are free and open for all to leverage. The work of the Web Foundation aims to have a substantial, positive impact on all of these factors, and on the future history of the Web.


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The Top 30 Internet Terms for Beginners, 2014

kmsraj51 की कलम से…..

WWW ( World Wide Web)
Concept internet communication

Welcome, readers! As you strive to make sense of the Internet and the World Wide Web, these 30 terms are bound to be very helpful.

1. The Web vs. the Internet

The Internet is a vast ‘interconnection of computer networks’. It is comprised of millions of computing devices that trade volumes of information. Desktop computers, mainframes, GPS units, cell phones, car alarms, video game consoles, and even soda pop machines are connected to the Net.

The Internet started in the late 1960’s as an American military project, and has since evolved into a massive public spiderweb. No single organization owns or controls the Internet. The Net has grown into a spectacular mishmash of non-profit, private sector, government, and entrepreneurial broadcasters.

The Internet houses many layers of information, with each layer dedicated to a different kind of documentation. These different layers are called ‘protocols’. The most popular protocols are the World Wide Web, FTP, Telnet, Gopherspace, instant messaging, and email.

The World Wide Web, or ‘Web’ for short, is the most popular portion of the Internet. The Web is viewed through web browser software.

Grammar and spelling note: Use capitalized ‘Internet’ and ‘Web’ when using either word as a noun. Use lowercase ‘internet’ or ‘web’ when using either word as an adjective. e.g. ‘We were browsing the Internet on our television last night.’ e.g. ‘We found a really good web page about global warming.’


2. http and https

http is a technical acronym that means ‘hypertext transfer protocol’, the language of web pages. When a web page has this prefix, then your links, text, and pictures should work in your web browser.

https is ‘hypertext transfer protocol SECURED’. This means that the web page has a special layer of encryption added to hide your personal information and passwords. Whenever you log into your online bank or your web email account, you should see https at the front of the page address.

:// is the strange expression for ‘this is a computer protocol’. We add these 3 characters in a Web address to denote which set of computer lanaguage rules affect the document you are viewing.


3. Browser

A browser is a free software package that lets you view web pages, graphics, and most online content. Browser software is specifically designed to convert HTML and XML into readable documents.

The most popular web browsers in 2013 are: Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari.


4. HTML and XML

Hypertext Markup Language is the programmatic language that web pages are based on. HTML commands your web browser to display text and graphics in orderly fashion. HTML uses commands called ‘HTML tags’ that look like the following:

XML is eXtensible Markup Language, a cousin to HTML. XML focuses on cataloging and databasing the text content of a web page. XML commands look like the following:

XHTML is a combination of HTML and XML.


5. URL

URL’s, or ‘uniform resource locators’, are the web browser addresses of internet pages and files. A URL works together with IP addresses to help us name, locate, and bookmark specific pages and files for our web browsers.

URL’s commonly use three parts to address a page or file: the protocol (which is the portion ending in ‘//:’); the host computer (which sometimes ends in .com); and the filename/pagename itself. For example:


6. IP Address

Your computer’s ‘internet protocol’ address is a four-part or eight-part electronic serial number. An IP address can look something like ‘’ or like ’21DA:D3:0:2F3B:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A’, complete with dot or colon separators. Every computer, cell phone, and device that accesses the Internet is assigned at least one IP address for tracking purposes. Wherever you browse, whenever you send an email or instant message, and whenever you download a file, your IP address acts like a type of automobile licence plate to enforce accountability and traceability.


7. Email

Email (formerly spelled e-mail with a hyphen) is electronic mail. It is the sending and receiving of typewritten messages from one screen to another. Email is usually handled by a webmail service (e.g. Gmail or Yahoomail), or an installed software package (e.g. Microsoft Outlook).

Email has many cousins: text messaging, instant messaging, live chat, videomail (v-mail), Google Waving.


8. Blogs and Blogging

A blog (‘web log’) is a modern online writer’s column. Amateur and professional writers publish their blogs on most every kind of topic: their hobby interest in paintball and tennis, their opinions on health care, their commentaries on celebrity gossip, photo blogs of favorite pictures, tech tips on using Microsoft Office. Absolutely anyone can start a blog, and some people actually make reasonable incomes by selling advertising on their blog pages.

Web logs are usually arranged chronologically, and with less formality than a full website. Blogs vary in quality from very amateurish to very professional. It costs nothing to start your own personal blog.

The 15 best blogging and publishing platforms on the Internet today. Which one is for you?

=> WordPress

=> Blogger

=> Tumblr

=> Medium

=> Svbtle

=> Quora


=> Google+

=> Facebook Notes


=> Ghost

=> Squarespace

=> Typepad

=> Posthaven

=> LinkedIn Influencers

=> The fallen heroes


9. Social Media and Social Bookmarking

Social media is the broad term for any online tool that enables users to interact with thousands of other users. Instant messaging and chatting are common forms of social media, as are blogs with comments, discussion forums, video-sharing and photo-sharing websites. and are very large social media sites, as are and

Social bookmarking is a the specific form of social media. Social bookmarking is where users interact by recommending websites to each other (‘tagging sites’).


10. ISP

ISP is Internet Service Provider. That is the private company or government organization that plugs you into the vast Internet around the world. Your ISP will offer varying services for varying prices: web page access, email, hosting your own web page, hosting your own blog, and so on. ISP’s will also offer various Internet connection speeds for a monthly fee. (e.g. ultra high speed Internet vs economy Internet).

Today, you will also hear about WISP’s, which are Wireless Internet Service Providers. They cater to laptop users who travel regularly.


11. Download

Downloading is a broad term that describes when you make a personal copy of something you find on the Internet or World Wide Web. Commonly, downloading is associated with songs, music, and software files (e.g. “I want to download a new musical ringtone for my cell phone”, “I want to download a trial copy of Microsoft Office 2010”). The larger the file you are copying, the longer the download will take to transfer to your computer. Some downloads will take 12 to 15 hours, depending on your Internet speed.

Be warned: downloading itself is fully legal, as long as you are careful not to download pirated movies and music.


12. Malware

Malware is the broad term to describe any malicious software designed by hackers. Malware includes: viruses, trojans, ratware, keyloggers, zombie programs, and any other software that seeks to do one of four things:

vandalize your computer in some way
steal your private information
take remote control of your computer (‘zombie’ your computer) for other ends
manipulate you into purchasing something
Malware programs are the time bombs and wicked minions of dishonest programmers.


13. Router (aka ‘Network Router’)

A router, or in many cases, a router-modem combination, is the hardware device that acts as the traffic cop for network signals into your home. A router can be wired or wireless or both. Your router provides both a defense against hackers, and the redirection service of deciding which specific computer or printer should get which signals in your home. If your router or router-modem is configured correctly, your Internet speed will be fast, and hackers will be locked out. If your router is poorly configured, you will experience network sluggishness and possible hacker intrusions.


14. Keywords and Tags/Labels

Keywords are search terms used to locate documents. Keywords are anywhere from one to five words long, separated by spaces or commas: e.g. “horseback riding calgary” e.g. “ipad purchasing advice” e.g. “ebay tips selling”. Keywords are the foundation for cataloging the Web, and the primary means by which you and I will find anything on the Web.

Tags (sometimes called ‘labels’) are recommendation keywords. Tags and labels focus on crosslinking you to related content… they are the modern evolution of ‘suggestions for further reading’.


15. Texting/Chatting

Texting is the short way to say ‘text messaging’, the sending of short electronic notes usually from a cell phone or handheld electronic device. Texting is popular with people who are mobile and away from their desk computers. Texting is something like the pagers of old, but has the file attachment ability of email.

To send a text message, you will usually need a keyboard-enabled cellphone and a text message service through your cellphone provider. You address your text messages using the recipient’s phone number.

In 2010, texting has spawned a controversial habit called ‘sexting’, which is when young people send sexual photos of themselves to other cell phone users.


16. I.M.

I.M. (usually spelled ‘IM’ without the periods) is instant messaging, a form of modern online chatting. IM is somewhat like texting, somewhat like email, and very much like sending notes in a classroom. IM uses specialized no-cost software that you install on your computer. That IM software in turn connects you to potentially thousands of other IM users through the Internet. You locate existing friends and make new friends by searching for their IM nicknames.

Once the software and your friends list is in place, you can send instantaneous short messages to each other, with the option of including file attachments and links. While the recipient sees your message instantly, they can choose to reply at their leisure.


17. P2P

P2P file sharing (‘peer-to-peer’) is the most voluminous Internet activity today. P2P is the cooperative trading of files amongst thousands of individual users. P2P participants install special software on their computers, and then voluntarily share their music, movies, ebooks, and software files with each other.

Through ‘uploading’ and ‘downloading’, users trade files that are anywhere from 1 megabyte to 5 gigabytes large. This activity, while in itself a fully legal pasttime, is very controversial because thousands of copyrighted songs and movies trade hands through P2P.


18. E-commerce

E-commerce is ‘electronic commerce’: the transacting of business selling and buying online. Every day, billions of dollars exchange hands through the Internet and World Wide Web. Sometimes, the e-commerce is your company buying office products from another company (business-to-business ‘B2B’ e-commerce). Sometimes, the e-ecommerce is when you make a private purchase as a retail customer from an online vendor (business-to-consumer ‘B2C’ e-commerce).

E-commerce works because reasonable privacy can be assured through technical means (e.g. https secure web pages), and because modern business values the Internet as a transaction medium.


19. Bookmark

A bookmark (aka “favorite”) is a marker that you can place on web pages and files. You would bookmark something because:

=> You want to return to the page or file later
=> You want to recommend the page or file to someone else

Bookmarks/Favorites can be made using your right mouse click menu, or the menus/toolbars at the top of your web browser. Bookmarks/Favorites can also be made on your Mac or Windows computer files.


20. Social Engineering

Social engineering is the conman art of talking directly to people to trick them into divulging passwords and their private information. All social engineering attacks are some form of a masquerade or phishing attack, designed to convince you that the attacker is trustworthy as a friend or as a legitimate authority figure. The attacker might use an email, phone call, or even face-time interview to deceive you. Common social engineering attacks include greeting cards, bogus lottery winnings, stock investment scams, warnings from an alleged banker that you’ve been hacked, credit card companies pretending to protect you.


21. Phishing and Whaling

‘Phishing’ is what modern-day con men do to defraud you of your personal accounts. Phishing is the use of convincing-looking emails and web pages to lure you into typing your account numbers and passwords/PINs. Often in the form of fake eBay web pages, fake PayPal warning messages, and fake bank login screens, phishing attacks can be very convincing to anyone who is not trained to watch for the subtle clues. As a rule, smart users distrust any email link that says “you should login and confirm this”.


22. Addons and Plugins

Addons are custom software modifications. User optionally install addons to improve the power of their Web browsers or office software. Examples include: a custom eBay toolbar for your Firefox browser, a new search feature for your Outlook email. Most addons are free, and can be found and downloaded from the Web.

Plugins are a special kind of web browser addon. Plugins are essentially required addons, if you wish to view very specialized web pages. Examples include: Adobe Flash or Shockwave player, Microsoft Silverlight player, Adobe Acrobat pdf reader.


23. Trojan

A trojan is a special kind of hacker program that relies on the user to welcome it and activate it. Named after the famous Trojan horse tale, a trojan program masquerades as a legitimate file or software program. Sometimes it will be an innocent-looking movie file, or an installer that pretends to be actual anti-hacker software. The power of the trojan attack comes from users naively downloading and running the trojan file.


24. Spamming and Filtering

‘Spam’ has two meanings. 1) Spam can mean ‘the rapid reptition of a keyboard command’. But more commonly, 2) spam is the jargon name of ‘unwanted/unsolicited email’. Spam email is usually comprised of two sub-categories: high-volume advertising, and hackers attempting to lure you into divulging your passwords.

Filtering is the popular-but-imperfect defense against spam. Filtering uses software that reads your incoming email for keyword combinations, andthen either deletes or quarantines messages that appear to be spam. Look for a ‘spam’ or ‘junk’ folder in your mailbox to see your quarantine of filtered email.


25. Cloud Computing and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)

Cloud computing is a fancy term to describe that your software is online and ‘borrowed’, instead of purchased and actually installed on your computer. Web-based email is the most prevalent example of cloud computing: the users’ email is all stored and accessed ‘in the cloud’ of the Internet, and not actually on their own computers. This is the modern version of the 1970’s mainframe computing model. As part of the cloud computing model, ‘Software as a Service’ is the business model that claims people would rather rent software than actually own it. With their web browsers, users access the cloud of the Internet, and log into their online rented copies of their SaaS software.


26. Apps and Applets

Apps and applets are small software applications. They are designed to be much smaller than regular computer software, but still provide very useful functions. Lately, apps are very popular with cellphone and mobile platforms; specifically: with the Apple iPhone and the Google Android phone.

Examples of apps: rangefinder GPS for golfing, song identification software, restaurant reviews, pocket video games, language translators for traveling.


27. Encryption and Authentication

Encryption is the mathematical scrambling of data so that it is hidden from eavesdroppers. Encryption uses complex math formulas (‘ciphers’) to turn private data into meaningless gobbledygook that only trusted readers can unscramble. Encryption is the basis for how we use the public Internet as a pipeline to conduct trusted business, like online banking and online credit card purchasing. On the provision that reliable encryption is in place, your banking information and credit card numbers are kept private.

Authentication is directly related to encryption. Authentication is the complex way that computer systems verify that you are who you say you are.


28. Ports and Port Forwarding

‘Network ports’ are thousands of tiny electronic ‘lanes’ that comprise your network connection. Every computer has 65,536 tiny ports, through which Internetworking data travels in and out. By using port management tools like a hardware router, users can control port access to better safeguard themselves against hackers.

‘Port forwarding’ is the semi-complex technique of opening specific network ports. You would port-forward to speed up your downloading and speed up your online connections for gaming and teleconferencing.


29. Firewall

Firewall is a generic term to describe ‘a barrier against destruction’. It comes from the building term of a protective wall to prevent the spreading of housefires or engine compartment fires. In the case of computing, ‘firewall’ means to have software and/or hardware protecting you from hackers and viruses.

Computing firewalls range from small antivirus software packages, to very complex and expensive software + hardware solutions. All the many kinds of computer firewalls offer some kind of safeguard against hackers vandalizing or taking over your computer system.


30. Archives and Archiving

A computer ‘archive’ is one of two things: a compressed container of multiple smaller data files, or a purposeful long-term storage of files that are not going to be used often. In some cases, an archive can be both.

The act of ‘archiving’, similarly, is one of two things: to combine and squeeze multiple files into a larger single file (for easier emailing); or, archiving is when you will retire data and documents to be put into long-term storage (e.g. your thousands of old emails in your inbox).


यदि आपके पास Hindi या English में कोई article, inspirational story, Poetry या जानकारी है जो आप हमारे साथ share करना चाहते हैं तो कृपया उसे अपनी फोटो के साथ E-mail करें. हमारी Id है::- . पसंद आने पर हम उसे आपके नाम और फोटो के साथ यहाँ PUBLISH करेंगे. Thanks!!


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Windows 8.1 Keyboard Shortcuts !!

kmsraj51 की कलम से …..

We have put together a list of 15 new keyboard shortcuts you can use on Windows 8.1.

15 – Usefull Keyboard Shortcuts

Shortcut Action

Windows Key + S => Open Search Charm to search Windows and Web

Windows Key + Q => Search within the opened app

Windows Key + F => Search files

Windows Key + Z => Get Commands and Context Menus within an app

Windows Key + . + Right Arrow => Snap app to the right

Windows Key + . + Left Arrow => Snap app to the left

Ctrl + Plus (+) => Zoom in on Start Screen

Ctrl + Minus (-) => Zoom out on Start Screen

Windows Key + Down Arrow => Close an app

Windows Key + Start Typing => Search your PC

Windows Key + O => Lock the screen orientation (portrait or landscape)

Windows Key + Ctrl + Spacebar => Change to a previously selected input language

Windows Key + P => Choose a presentation display mode

Windows Key + X => Open Start Button options

Windows Key + Home => Minimize all but the active desktop window

यदि आपके पास Hindi या English में कोई article, inspirational story, Poetry या जानकारी है जो आप हमारे साथ share करना चाहते हैं तो कृपया उसे अपनी फोटो के साथ E-mail करें. हमारी Id है::- . पसंद आने पर हम उसे आपके नाम और फोटो के साथ यहाँ PUBLISH करेंगे. Thanks!!


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Windows XP – Support is ending soon

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Support is ending soon
On April 8, 2014, support and updates for Windows XP will no longer be available. Don’t let your PC go unprotected.

What is Windows XP end of support?
Microsoft has provided support for Windows XP for the past 12 years. But now the time has come for us, along with our hardware and software partners, to invest our resources toward supporting more recent technologies so that we can continue to deliver great new experiences.

As a result, after April 8, 2014, technical assistance for Windows XP will no longer be available, including automatic updates that help protect your PC. Microsoft will also stop providing Microsoft Security Essentials for download on Windows XP on this date. (If you already have Microsoft Security Essentials installed, you will continue to receive antimalware signature updates for a limited time, but this does not mean that your PC will be secure because Microsoft will no longer be providing security updates to help protect your PC.)

If you continue to use Windows XP after support ends, your computer will still work but it might become more vulnerable to security risks and viruses. Also, as more software and hardware manufacturers continue to optimize for more recent versions of Windows, you can expect to encounter greater numbers of apps and devices that do not work with Windows XP.


What does it mean if my version of Windows is no longer supported?
An unsupported version of Windows will no longer receive software updates from Windows Update. These include security updates that can help protect your PC from harmful viruses, spyware, and other malicious software, which can steal your personal information. Windows Update also installs the latest software updates to improve the reliability of Windows—new drivers for your hardware and more.

Support end dates

Here are the dates when support will end for PCs running Windows XP and Windows Vista without the latest service packs:

Support for Windows XP is ending on April 8, 2014. For more information, see Support is ending for Windows XP.

Support for Windows Vista Service Pack 1 (SP1) ended on July 12, 2011. To continue support, make sure you’ve installed Windows Vista Service Pack 2 (SP2).

Support for Windows Vista without any service packs ended on April 13, 2010. To continue support, make sure you’ve installed Windows Vista SP2.

Support for Windows XP SP2 ended on July 13, 2010. To continue support, make sure you’ve installed Windows XP Service Pack 3 (SP3).

How do I stay protected?
To stay protected after support ends, you have two options:

Upgrade your current PC
Very few older computers will be able to run Windows 8.1, which is the latest version of Windows. We recommend that you download and run the Windows Upgrade Assistant to check if your PC meets the system requirements for Windows 8.1 and then follow the steps in the tutorial to upgrade if your PC is able. For more detailed information, read the FAQ…..

Get a new PC

If your current PC can’t run Windows 8.1, it might be time to consider shopping for a new one. Be sure to explore our great selection of new PCs. They’re more powerful, lightweight, and stylish than ever before—and with an average price that’s considerably less expensive than the average PC was 10 years ago.

Find Your Perfect PC

How do I move all my Windows XP stuff to a new PC?

You can move your Windows XP stuff with Laplink, a free data migration solution that will walk you through all the steps to getting your files, setings, and user profiles from your Windows XP PC to your new Windows laptop, desktop, or tablet. (Note that you will need your Windows XP PC to migrate your data, and you can only migrate to a PC running Windows 7, Windows 8, or Windows 8.1.)

What do I get with Windows 8.1?

Windows 8.1 makes it easy to do all the things you’re used to doing with Windows XP while opening up a whole new world of possibilities for you to explore and enjoy.

8 win-kmsraj51


यदि आपके पास Hindi “OR” English में कोई article, inspirational story, Poetry या जानकारी है जो आप हमारे साथ share करना चाहते हैं तो कृपया उसे अपनी फोटो के साथ E-mail करें. हमारी Id है::- . पसंद आने पर हम उसे आपके नाम और फोटो के साथ यहाँ PUBLISH करेंगे. Thanks!!


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Free See Online Movies/Vedio/TV shows/Clips HD Quality

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Go To Hulu =>

Hulu’s mission is to help people find and enjoy the world’s premium video content when, where and how they want it. As we pursue this mission, we aspire to create a service that users, advertisers and content owners unabashedly love.



Hulu is an online video service that offers a selection of hit TV shows, clips, movies and more on the free, ad-supported service, and the subscription service Hulu Plus. Instantly stream any current season episode of primetime TV shows like Family Guy, Modern Family, Glee, Grey’s Anatomy, The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, The Colbert Report and many others. Catch up on classic series including Lost, The Office, I Love Lucy, The Cosby Show, Frasier, Star Trek and Family Ties. Enjoy full episodes and clips from Saturday Night Live. Explore a wide array of acclaimed movies and documentaries, including hundreds of titles from The Criterion Collection. Discover Hulu Original Series like The Awesomes and A Day in the Life.

For just $7.99 a month, Hulu Plus subscribers can access premium programming anytime on internet-connected TVs, smartphones, game consoles, set top boxes and additional devices, in HD (when available). More details on Hulu Plus enabled devices can be found here.

Watch The 13th Unit (2014)HD


User Experience

Hulu is focused on quality and convenience and strives to create the best possible online video experience.
Hulu gives users the ability to customize their viewing experience online.
Hulu allows users to watch favorites or discover new shows anytime — at home or on the road.
Hulu’s search feature helps users find any premium video online even if it is not directly available on
Hulu is easy to use and share. Simply go to, and click on a video to watch right away.
Hulu does not require a download of any software. Users only need a Flash enabled computer and an Internet connection to enjoy.
Hulu offers the freedom to share full-length episodes or clips via e-mail or embeds on other websites, blogs and social networking pages.
Hulu’s clipping feature allows users to select a portion of the video they would like to share.
Hulu is free and legal through an advertising supported model.
Videos are available for unlimited streaming; watch favorite shows and clips over and over for free.
A modest amount of advertising runs during normal commercial breaks.
Hulu acquires the rights to distribute its videos, making them available to users legally.
Hulu Plus is an ad-supported subscription service that offers current and back season shows from ABC, Comedy Central, The CW, FOX, NBC, MTV and Univision to connected devices for $7.99 monthly.
Exclusive streaming access to full current and past seasons.
Available on smart TVs, gaming consoles, mobile phones and tablets and more.
Easy to set up, watch and share.


Hulu allows users to enjoy great videos on and on many other popular sites across the Web. Hulu videos are available on Yahoo!, MSN, AOL, IMDb and TV Guide, as well as a growing network of personal blogs, fan sites and other sites where users choose to embed the Hulu video player.

Additionally, Hulu Plus subscribers can access more than 400 million connected TVs, smartphones, game consoles and set top boxes (not including PCs). Click here for more information on Hulu Plus enabled devices.



Hulu gives advertisers an opportunity to associate their brands with premium online video content and connect with highly engaged consumers. And, through the Hulu Plus subscription service, advertisers can extend their reach to the users of the millions of Hulu Plus enabled devices on market today.

Additionally, Hulu offers and is committed to the continued development of innovative advertising experiences. More than 1000 advertisers have leveraged the Hulu service since launch in 2008, including Johnson & Johnson, McDonald’s, Visa, Pepsi, Nestle, Microsoft, GEICO, Target, Verizon Wireless, Sprint, Purina, Nissan, Toyota, Honda, State Farm, Allstate, Unilever and Procter & Gamble.

Source ::


यदि आपके पास Hindi “OR” English में कोई article, inspirational story, Poetry या जानकारी है जो आप हमारे साथ share करना चाहते हैं तो कृपया उसे अपनी फोटो के साथ E-mail करें. हमारी Id है::- . पसंद आने पर हम उसे आपके नाम और फोटो के साथ यहाँ PUBLISH करेंगे. Thanks!!


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Indian Flag

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Optimize PC: Fix Network Connection Problems in Windows 7

kmsraj51 की कलम से …..

Some portable computers have a wireless network adapter wherein the user can view a list of available wireless networks and then connect to one of that network. This network will appear if the computer has a wireless network adapter installed, if the adapter is turned on and the wireless access point is in range.

To view and connect to wireless networks in Windows 7:

Click the wireless network icon in the notification area of the taskbar.
Choose the desired network to connect to in the list of wireless networks and t hen click Connect.
Type the security key if connecting to a secure network and then click OK.

It is important to have a PC that works at its best to ensure tasks accomplishment and other errands everyday. However, if the PC is not functioning well, this will trigger a problem to the user. The user must make it a habit to check the computer daily since it can not be avoided that errors may arise anytime, whether caused by internal functions of the computer or from the outside environment. If a problem in the wireless network connection arises, just do the following steps to cure it.


Usually, improperly connected hardware is the major cause of network connection problems. Check the network adapter switch, reset modem and check for problems with the network adapter. If a laptop is being used, se to it that the network adapter switch is turned on. There are numbers of laptop that has a physical switch somewhere on the front, side or top of the laptop that turns network adapter on or off. Usually, the laptop has an indicator light that tells whether the wireless network adapter is enabled or not. Check also the network adapter in the Device Manager and verify the status of the network adapter by doing the following steps:

=> Hit the Start button and type “device manager” in the search box.
=> Choose Device Manager in the resulting list. If the computer requires for an administrator password or confirmation, supply the necessary information to proceed with the process.
=> Double-click Network Adapter then right-click the network adapter.
=> Select properties and then under Device status, check if the device is working properly.
=> Select Enable Device to enable network adapter if it is disabled.


To start with, use the Network troubleshooter and then test the internet connection. To open the Network troubleshooter, simply right-click the wireless network connection icon in the notification area of the taskbar then selects Troubleshoot problems.

Network adapter driver is an application used by the computer to communicate with the wireless network adapter. Network adapter drivers which are corrupted or obsolete prevent network connection to fail.

“Just execute these steps properly and the problem in wireless network connection will surely be resolved.”


यदि आपके पास Hindi “OR” English में कोई article, inspirational story, Poetry या जानकारी है जो आप हमारे साथ share करना चाहते हैं तो कृपया उसे अपनी फोटो के साथ E-mail करें. हमारी Id है::- . पसंद आने पर हम उसे आपके नाम और फोटो के साथ यहाँ PUBLISH करेंगे. Thanks!!


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Check Who is Accessing Your Wireless Network

kmsraj51 की कलम से …..

Have you subscribed for high-speed broadband internet connection?
Do you use wireless network/wi-fi to connect to the internet?
Are you still unhappy about not getting the speed you were promised?

If the answers to the above questions are YES, then you might need to check your Wireless router’s settings once again. There is a possibility of someone sharing stealing your wireless connection illegally.

Having a wifi router at home is very common these days. People prefer to stay connected to the internet via their desktop, laptop, mobile phone or even their multimedia gadget like iPod Touch. That is pretty cool, but the issue is when you forget (or ignore) to set a password for your wireless connection. That would mean, anyone nearby, within the router connectivity area can easily connect to your network and get free access to the internet!!

wifi - kmsraj51

How to Check who is Accessing your Wireless network?
In order to check who is illegally accessing your internet connection, you can download and install a small tool – Zamzom Wireless Network Tool which can easily track who is using your network.

“With Zamzom wireless network tool you can see ALL the users that use your wireless network. Zamzom Wireless network tool only use 10 second to give you the result.”

Features of Zamzom wireless network tool:
-=> Inform you of who is using your wireless network
-=> Inform you of all the names
-=> Inform you of all the IP addresses
-=> Inform you of the Mac addresses
-=> Scan your wireless network in only 10 seconds
-=> Detect computers even if you don’t see them in program neighborhood
-=> Detect computers even if you can’t ping them


The tool comes in 2 versions – Basic and Pro. The basic version is free to use and the Pro version costs $12.5! The only difference being, in Pro version you will be able to see the computer name in addition to the IP address of the device being used.

It works on Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows 2003/2008 Server, Windows Vista, and Windows 7. You can check out this video demo to get a better understanding of what this tool is capable of…..

Download Zamzom Wireless Network Tool



यदि आपके पास Hindi “OR” English में कोई article, inspirational story, Poetry या जानकारी है जो आप हमारे साथ share करना चाहते हैं तो कृपया उसे अपनी फोटो के साथ E-mail करें. हमारी Id है::- . पसंद आने पर हम उसे आपके नाम और फोटो के साथ यहाँ PUBLISH करेंगे. Thanks!!

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Extend the Wi-Fi Range with These 9 Wi-Fi Enhancers

kmsraj51 की कलम से …..

As our homes and cities are more and more connected to the Internet and the Wi-Fi coverage increases, we enjoy the benefits of the web wherever we are. The problem today is that even the best routers can’t cover a big enough area so that we can stay connected to the Internet continuously. Also, the battery restrictions of our smartphones don’t let us stay for a longer period to a WiFi connection (as you know, the Wi-Fi antenna consumes a massive amount of battery power).

Although we can’t do anything for the battery of our smartphones for the time being (we did see some innovation with the wireless charger of the Samsung Galaxy S III smartphone), we can enjoy a better signal from our Wi-Fi routers with a few cool gadgets that extend our signal to a wider area. Also, do check out our guide to improve and extend your Wi-Fi coverage.



What are WiFi extenders or WiFi enhancers? These electronic components are signal boosters for our routers, that multiply the signal sent from the routing device to a wider area, both unidirectional (in one direction) or multidirectional (in multiple directions). WiFi enhancers can be mounted on the router’s antenna and boost the signal directly from the source, or they can be entirely separate devices that boost the signal when it gets low, creating a new hot spot around them.

If a usual WiFi router has a coverage area of about approximately 50 meters, these WiFi extenders can double or even triple the WiFi coverage of your router.


You might expect these devices to have staggering prices, much more over the range of normal WiFi routers. But the truth is that they come in almost the same price range, going from anything around $20 and up to $400 or more. This makes them widely available for anyone who wants a boost of their Wi-Fi signal, to enjoy the web from the backyard or for those who share an Internet connection at a greater distance.

9 Best Wi-Fi Extenders


This strangely shaped Wi-Fi Enhancer is absolutely great! It doesn’t occupy much space because it’s mounted directly on the antenna of your wireless router and it amplifies and directs the signal in one direction. This gadget is great if your router does not cover a room or a part of your house, just mount in on the antenna of your router, point it in which direction you want and there you are. It’s simple to install, you don’t need an engineering degree to set it up and you can have it up and running in a few minutes! A great piece of tech, and for around $25, one of the best deals you can get. The bad part is that it only points to one direction.


In the budget side of the top comes the EnGenius ERB9250 Wi-Fi Booster, which is only $45. This Wi-Fi Enhancer features easily removable antennas, excellent for later upgrades to your network, when you need a bigger coverage and its small size and neutral looks make it great for a home wireless network. Also, the device can be easily set up, so you can have it up and running in a few minutes.


The biggest gun in the house, the Luxul PW100-24-100 Wi-Fi Booster has the best coverage (almost the size of a big cyber cafe or store) and it’s designed to be the workhorse for a crowded networks. This Wi-Fi Enhancer is ceiling mounted, so you won’t even see it and it does the job fantastic. The only bad part about it is that it’s harder to find and it costs considerably more than the rest (in the range of $400-$500). Apart from this, for a store or a public indoor place, this device is the way to go!


Perfect for indoor use, this Wi-Fi Extender can amplify your signal and make it reach all the corners of your house or office, even through thick walls. Also, for multi-story houses, the device can greatly improve your Wi-Fi coverage and give you full strength signal where you previously had none. The size of the device is in the mid-range and it only has one antenna, but trust me when I say: it does the job great!


Belkin has brought us some pretty awesome devices over the years, and with this Wi-Fi enhancer they haven’t disappointed a bit. Giving users an additional 100 meters of Wi-Fi signal and with 4 ethernet ports, this device lets you manage your home or office network very well. Also, its awesome design lets you position it out in the open without the fear that it will ruin the look of your house.


This little device has a pretty big punch. It can amplify your signal to almost 100 meters indoor and a staggering 300 meters outdoors, all this with less power consumption than any other Wi-Fi enhancer. It features a Ethernet port where you can connect wired devices to your network and two Wi-Fi antennas and its small size makes it easy to conceal. Although it does have only one Ethernet port, so it limits the number of wired connections, its huge coverage area makes it great for wireless devices, both indoor and outdoor.


Although less powerful than the other Wi-Fi enhancers featured in this top, and with only one ethernet port, this device is much more smaller and it fits in one wall socket, so you don’t need a power cord to run it. This is the way to go if you don’t want any wires in your home and if you prefer small, less noticeable devices. It’s great for a home network, amplifying your Wi-Fi signal with another 30 meters, great for a home or office network and not wide enough for other people to piggyback your connection.

2. ZYXEL WAP3205

Offering a hefty 100 meters of extra WiFi signal, the ZyXEL WAP3205 is a great upgrade you can make to your existing home network. Also, it has another two Ethernet ports that you can use to connect your wired devices into the wireless network and with two antennas, one for receiving the Wi-Fi signal and one for bouncing it along. The only thing I could find wrong with this Wi-Fi enhancer is that it does not have a ON/OFF switch, so for turning it off or for resetting the unit, you need to unplug it.


A stunning looking device with lots of power under it, the Hawking HW2R1 is one of the best Wi-Fi enhancers out there. Users of this device have at their disposal three antennas to bounce their Wi-Fi signal at lengths they never thought they could. The first antenna of the Wi-Fi Enhancer picks up the Wi-Fi signal coming from your router and the other two bounce it back out, giving you a Wi-Fi signal that goes up to 150 meters. Also, the device comes with five Ethernet ports, so you can connect an additional five wired devices to your network with ease.


यदि आपके पास Hindi “OR” English में कोई article, inspirational story, Poetry या जानकारी है जो आप हमारे साथ share करना चाहते हैं तो कृपया उसे अपनी फोटो के साथ E-mail करें. हमारी Id है::- . पसंद आने पर हम उसे आपके नाम और फोटो के साथ यहाँ PUBLISH करेंगे. Thanks!!



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5 Ways to Speed Up Your Wireless Network

kmsraj51 की कलम से …..

अपने वायरलेस नेटवर्क में तेजी लाने के लिए 5 तरीके
wifi - kmsraj51

So, you’ve just spent a hefty chunk of your paycheck on a new router, and you gradually begin to realize that its speed isn’t exactly up to par. Luckily, this normally doesn’t have anything to do with the quality of the router. The problem most likely lies with the way it is configured and/or positioned. A weak wifi signal or slow transfer speed can be troublesome, but you’ll be happy to know that there are some simple things that you can do to remedy this issue.


1. Consider its position – Most people are under the impression that it doesn’t matter where in the house the router it placed because they think the signal will be great regardless of its position. This is actually very far from the truth. The truth is that knowing where exactly to place your router can be the difference between a strong signal and a weak signal. Remember, the weaker the signal is, the slower the connection will be. Place your router in a strategic place such as the center. If your house has three floors, place it in near the center on the second floor. You’ll also need to make sure that there aren’t any obstructions such as metal objects or brick walls. Obstructions such as these can really cut a wifi signal down to size.

2. Purchase a repeater – You may have found that moving your wireless router hasn’t exactly solved the problem. If this is the case, a repeater is very likely to remedy the issue. A repeater is simply a device that is placed within the wireless network’s range, and it simply broadcasts the wireless signal even further. These are particularly helpful if you’ve got an exceptionally long or narrow home, or if you’ve got a multiple story home.

WiFi - House - kmsraj51

3. Try changing the router’s channel – The truth is that many electronic household objects operate on a radio frequency just as your router does, and if they’re operating on the same frequency, things could get hairy. You could ultimately troubleshoot the issue by changing your router’s channel. This can be done in your within your router’s settings, and it’s simply for almost anybody to do it. However, there are a few programs on the market that will do this for you in the case that you don’t feel comfortable messing around in the settings, and one of them is called “NetStumbler.”

4. Make sure your problem isn’t the wireless adapter – It’s always recommended that you don’t always narrow the problem down to your router. If you’ve been using the same wireless adapter to connect to your network all along and you’re still experiencing trouble, you may want to take a closer look at your wireless adapter. To check if the adapter is the problem, bring it to a friend’s house or public place that has free wifi. If your wireless adapter has trouble with the signal in other places too, it may very well be your culprit. Purchase another wireless adapter to rule all possibilities out other than your router.

5. Try updating your router’s firmware as well as relevant drivers – The truth is that hardware developers aren’t perfect, and not all devices are going to work flawlessly. The problem you’re experiencing may be a result of outdated firmware or drivers, so go ahead and get the latest of each for your router and adapters. The router’s firmware can typically be updated through the gateway settings, and adapter drivers can usually be found on the manufacturer’s website.


यदि आपके पास Hindi “OR” English में कोई article, inspirational story, Poetry या जानकारी है जो आप हमारे साथ share करना चाहते हैं तो कृपया उसे अपनी फोटो के साथ E-mail करें. हमारी Id है::- . पसंद आने पर हम उसे आपके नाम और फोटो के साथ यहाँ PUBLISH करेंगे. Thanks!!


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Improve and Extend Your Wi-Fi Coverage

kmsraj51 की कलम से …..

If you are someone who has a Wi-Fi setup at home, ask yourself these questions –

Are the signals from your Wi-Fi router dropping out every now and then?
Do you wish for more coverage?
Does your Windows notifies you about a weak signal?
If your answer for any one of the questions above is an Yes, you have come to the right place. This article provides some tips to improve the signal of your wireless network and possibly extend its coverage area.

wifi - kmsraj51


Guide to improve and extend Wi-Fi coverage at home

1. Position your wireless router & modem in a central location

See if you can place your wireless router in a central location in your home. Say if you have a two-storeyed building placing the router in first floor makes sense. Don’t worry if you can’t move your wireless router, because there are many other ways to improve your connection.

2. Check for any Interference

Make sure interference from other Wi-Fi networks or other transmitting devices aren’t hindering your signal. Metal, walls, and floors can also interfere with your Wi-Fi signals. Devices such as Bluetooth adapters, cordless phones, wireless cameras, wireless keyboards or mice, and wireless speakers or even microwaves can hinder the signal strength. Download and use NetStumbler to check for all the networks in the area.

3. Replace your router’s antenna

Normally, the WiFi routers come with omni-directional antenna, which means that they broadcast in all directions around the router. In case your router is near an outside wall, most of the signals will get transmitted outside the home, so the best thing in that case would be to go buy a hi-gain antenna that focuses the wireless signals in only one direction. You can aim the signal in the direction you need it most.

4. Check and Replace your computer’s wireless network adapter

Sometimes, your router can broadcast strongly enough to reach your computer, but your computer can’t send signals back to your router. In order to improve this, you can try replacing your PC’s wireless network adapter that uses an external antenna. Note that laptops usually come with excellent antennas and hence won’t need to have their network adapters changed.

5. Upgrade to Wireless N

If you think there is no issue with the router’s positioning or interference or the network adapter, you can consider upgrading your devices to 802.11n. But this would involve buying brand new equipment as the older 802.11g or b isn’t upgradable with latest firmware. Wireless N uses multiple-in-multiple-out (MIMO), a smart antenna technology, and other improvements that make for much larger coverage areas and faster connections. To get full improvement, you also need to use both Wireless N for the router and the wireless adapters.

6. Add a wireless repeater
This is a very common suggestion you would come across everywhere. Wireless repeaters extend your wireless network range without requiring you to add any wiring. Just place the wireless repeater halfway between your wireless access point and your computer, and you’ll get an instant boost to your wireless signal strength. They don’t even cost more, so it surely makes sense to go for quality wireless repeaters.

7. Update your firmware or your network adapter driver

Router manufacturers regularly make free improvements to their routers. Sometimes, these improvements increase performance. To get the latest firmware updates for your router, visit your router manufacturer’s Web site. The same holds good with network adapters as well.

8. Pick equipment from a single vendor

Now this might look weird, but it really works. You often get better performance if you pick a router and network adapter from the same vendor. Some vendors offer a performance boost of up to twice the performance when you choose their hardware.

9. Extend Coverage Using Access Points

Another way to boost your Wi-Fi signals is by using additional access points to your network. This method uses Ethernet cables to connect these additional access points back to your router. You might need to hide those additional cables!

Hope you find this article useful. Share your experiences!!!!!!





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Check Google Page Rank

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Google PageRank (Google PR) is one of the methods Google uses to determine a page’s relevance or importance. Important pages receive a higher PageRank and are more likely to appear at the top of the search results. Google PageRank (PR) is a measure from 0 – 10. Google Pagerank is based on backlinks. The more quality backlinks the higher Google Pagerank. Improving your Google page rank (building quality backlinks) is very important if you want to improve your search engine rankings.

FAKE PAGERANK CHECKER AND COMPLETE DOMAIN ANALYSIS Google Pagerank fraud is achieved when offending websites use redirects that point their websites to sites with a high Google Pagerank. Our Google PageRank checker determines if the PageRank is valid and also the quality of the pagerank based on the backlinks structure.


What is PageRank?

PageRank is the number that Google assigns to each website and even each website page within its index, on a scale of 0 to 10, to display its algorithm’s calculated assessment of the overall importance of the site and even how it would rank in search results. The PageRank algorithm is named after Google founder, Larry Page. The actual definition of pagerank according to Google is:

PageRank works by counting the number and quality of links to a page to determine a rough estimate of how important the website is. The underlying assumption is that more important websites are likely to receive more links from other websites.

The days of trying to fool Google’s algorithm by building high quantities of links are long gone. Recent Google algorithm updates determine pagerank, not only by the quantity of links, but more importantly, the quality of links. Simply put, a link to your site from a PageRank 5 site has more weight than a link to your site from a PageRank 4 site. The actual algorithm is quite complex. However, the bottom line is that the higher the PageRank of your site, the better it should rank in search results, when compared to similar sites.


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VMware Recertification Policy

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Recertification Policy: VMware Certified Professional


Recertification Process | FAQs | More Information

Certifications are valuable assets for any IT professional and VMware Certified Professional (VCP) certifications are widely believed to reflect exceptional competence. Your VCP certification validates your ability to successfully employ current VMware products using best practices in operational environments.

Earning a VCP certification is a great achievement. But staying up to date in the expertise gained and proven by your certification is equally vital. If your skills are not current, your certification loses value. To ensure that all VCP holders maintain their proficiency, VMware is instituting a recertification policy.

Recertification is widely recognized in the IT industry and beyond as an important element of continuing professional growth. It enhances your credibility and demonstrates a commitment to your career, your employer, and your customers.

The new policy gives you three options to recertify:

Take the current exam for your existing VCP certification solution track. For example, if you are a VCP3, you could take the current VCP5-Data Center Virtualization (VCP5-DCV) exam.
Earn a new VCP certification in a different solution track. For example, if you are a VCP-Cloud, you could recertify by earning VCP5-Desktop (VCP5-DT) certification.
Advance to the next level by earning a VMware Certified Advanced Professional (VCAP) certification. For example, if you are a VCP5-DCV you could earn VCAP5-DCA certification.
Regardless of the option you choose, recertifying will enhance your ability to provide the highest quality results, and improve your chances for earning increased compensation and career advancement.

Recertification Process

You will be notified that your certification is due to expire via the email associated with your MyLearn account. Your transcript will also show the dates your certification is valid.
To recertify, you must pass any VCP or higher-level exam within two years of earning your most recent VCP certification.
Failure to recertify by the required date will result in revocation of your certification.
If your certification is revoked, you will lose access to the VCP portal and your right to market yourself as certified for that certification, which includes the use of VMware certification logos. Also, your transcript will reflect that your certification is no longer valid.
If you would like to re-earn a certification for which you have been decertified, you must satisfy the same prerequisites as any candidate attempting to earn that certification for the first time.

1. What is VMware announcing?
VMware is implementing a recertification policy for VCP certification. To recertify, VMware Certified Professional (VCP) holders must pass any VCP or higher-level exam within two years of earning their most recent VCP certification.

2. Why is VMware announcing this policy change?
Currently, VCP certification holders are not required to recertify their skills, which is uncommon in the IT industry, Maintaining currency in the expertise gained and proven by VMware certifications is just as important as earning the certification initially. If your skills are not current, your certification loses value. The technical and business communities expect that VMware certified professionals are current on the latest technologies and capable of implementing VMware products with the highest level of skill. To ensure that all certification holders meet these expectations, VMware is instituting a recertification policy.

3. When does the policy go into effect?
The policy is effective as of March 10, 2014.

4. Why did VMware choose two years for VCP recertification?
To make sure our certificate holders are the most up to date in their field and to keep up with the rapidly changing pace of virtualization technology, two years is an appropriate amount of time for a certified individual to refresh and re-validate their skills.

5. What are the benefits of recertifying?
In addition to proving that you are maintaining your skills with the latest technology, you also receive the same benefits as if you were a newly certified candidate, including:

Recognition of your technical knowledge and skills
Official transcripts
Access to the exclusive VCP portal & logo merchandise store
Invitation to beta exams and classes
Use of the certification logo on personal websites and business cards
Discounted admission to VMware events
Discounts from VMware Press
6. What certifications do I need to recertify by March 10, 2015?
All VCP level certifications — VCP-DCV, VCP-Cloud, VCP-Desktop — that were earned prior to March 10, 2013 must be recertified. Any VCP2, VCP3, VCP4, or VCP5 certification can be recertified during this period by simply taking a current VCP or VCAP exam. Anyone holding a VCP certification awarded prior to March 10, 2013 has until March 10, 2015 to recertify.

7. How can passing another VCP or higher-level certification recertify my existing certification?
It recognizes and rewards your continued growth into new knowledge areas.

8. My VCAP certification is more recent than my VCP certification – when will the valid through date reflect this?
We will be adding functionality to the system to reflect these situations in the coming months.

9. What happens if I allow my certification to expire?
Your certification will be revoked, and you will no longer be entitled to use the certification logo or represent yourself as VMware certified. Your certification will be shown as no longer valid on your MyLearn account. Any employer who contacts us to validate your certification will be informed it is no longer valid.

10. Can I still access the VCP portal if my certification is revoked?

11. Is there a grace period after my certification is revoked where I can take the exam and be reinstated, or do I need to start over?
No. There is no grace period after your certification is revoked. To regain certified status, you will need to meet all the prerequisites for the specific certification.

12. Will you notify me when my certification is near its expiration date?
Yes. You will receive an email notice at the email address associated with your MyLearn account.

13. Is there a course requirement to recertify?
Previously, a candidate was given a limited amount of time to upgrade their existing certification, after which a course was required. Effective with the announcement of this recertification policy, a candidate can recertify anytime within their two-year recertification period, without a course requirement. However, we recommend that you do enroll in training, as hands-on experience through on demand or live (classroom or virtual) classes will provide you with the latest education to better prepare you for the exam.

14. Is the recertification exam different from the normal exam?

15. Does the recertification exam cost the same?
Yes. There may be discounts and promotions available here.

16. Are there any course discounts available to help me get ready for the exam?
You can find the currently available discounts and promotions here.

17. How does this policy affect me if I received my VCP5-DCV two or more years ago?
A candidate holding any VCP level certification(s) — VCP-DCV, VCP-Cloud, VCP-Desktop — that were earned on or before March 10, 2013 must recertify by March 10, 2015.

If your certification was earned after March 10, 2013, you must recertify within two years of that date.

18. I have multiple VCP certifications. Which date do you look at to determine if I need to recertify?
The most recent certification date will be used to determine your recertification deadline. For example, if you earned VCP5-DCV on January 1, 2012 and VCP5-DT on February 10, 2014, then your recertification deadline will be based on the VCP5-DT date. In this case, the recertification deadline is February 10, 2016.

19. My VCP level certification is over two years old, but my VCAP level certification is not — do I need to recertify by March 10, 2015?
No. Your recertification date is based on the date of your most recent and highest level of certification — in this case, two years from your VCAP date.

20. My VCP is more than two years old, but I just received a VCA last month. Do I still need to recertify by March 10, 2015?
The only way to recertify your VCP is to take an exam at the same level or higher.

21. I took the course and passed the exam in 2013, but it shows I am not certified until 2014 when I completed my certification tasks. Which date is used when determining recertification?
The date you completed the tasks is the official date that will be used to determine your recertification date.

22. I noticed that the VCP4-DCV certification is no longer offered after May – why is that?
This certification is based on technology that has since been greatly expanded. Our new recertification policy ensures that all certification holders are current on the latest technologies; therefore, we have decided to end this program’s availability.

23. How long will VCP4-DT, VCP4-DCV, VCAP4-DCA, VCAP4-DCD be available?
Candidates will have until April 30, 2014 to register for any VCP or VCAP Version 4.x exam, and until May 31, 2014 to take the exam.

VCDX4-DCV candidates have until May 9, 2014 to submit an application and must defend by July 9, 2014.

24. I have multiple accounts. How do I ensure my recertification is applied to the correct account?
We encourage you to merge your accounts by contacting If all of your certifications are under a single account, your recertification will apply to all impacted certifications. If you maintain separate accounts, you may run the risk of having multiple recertification dates.

More Information

For more information on the recertification policy, please contact

Source ::

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